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Material Technology

Material Technology:

Type of Materials:

-Carbon Steel

Tempered Spring Steel

The high carbon tempered spring steel of SWRH72A is commonly used in the retaining ring and wave

spring. Through the tempering treatment, the tensile strength and yield strength of materials will

achieve the optimal degree with good elasticity.
Because of its poor corrosion resistance performance, the carbon steel products must go through a

special surface treatment to achieve the anti-rust purpose. Generally the treatment will be done by

blackening or coating with antirust oil. The use in the acid-base environment is not recommended.

Working Temperature: <120 degreesCelsius

◎Considering the strong magnetic property of the carbon steel, different surface treatments will

have a variety of colors such as blue, black and grey.

- Stainless Steel

SUS304H Stainless Steel

The 304H high carbon elastic stainless steel is commonly used in wave spring and retaining ring.

After intensely cold deformation, high strength and elasticity will be achieved together with better

oxidation and corrosion resistance. The finished products generally will go through the heat

treatment of low temperature stress relief.

Working Temperature: <220 degreesCelsius

◎The 304H stainless steel has a low magnetic property after cold treatment and the different thermal

treatments will have silver white, silver, gold yellow colors and etc.

SUS316 Stainless Steel

The 316 stainless steel is Ni-Cr stainless steel almost has the same mechanical properties of 304H.

The 316 stainless steel’s nickel content is relatively higher while containing molybdenum, so its

corrosion resistance is more powerful than 304H and its finished products will also have to go

through the heat treatment of low temperature.

◎The 316 stainless steel has a low magnetic property after cold treatment and the different thermal

treatments will have silver white, silver, gold yellow colors and etc.

SUS631 (17-7PH/C) Stainless Steel

The SUS631 stainless steel is the precipitation-hardening stainless steel added with aluminum

elements obtaining a similar corrosion resistance with 304H type. And by martensite, cold deformation

and precipitation-hardening composite strengthening, it will obtain very high strength and elasticity

applicable especially for wave spring manufacturing and has been used mainly in fatigue-resistance

and high-stress conditions and also often in the production of retaining ring. The elasticity of

SUS631 STAINLESS STEEL is obtained through the dispersion hardening treatment from the state of C to

CH-900, and its finished products will not lose its elasticity even at a temperature of 343℃.

Working Temperature:<343 ℃

The SUS631 stainless steel, after cold treatment, will obtain a low magnetic property. It will appear

blue or brown with the precipitation-hardening heat treatment in the air. And it will look silver

white or silver with the protective atmosphere heat treatment.

Super Alloy Steel of INCONELX-750*

This Ni-Cr alloy is applicable in the corrosion environment at a high temperature with a good

performance of anti-vulcanization. Here below are two common elastic states of tempered Inconel X-750

after the precipitation-hardening heat treatment:

Spring Temper + Aged: Thefinished products of this state at the working temperature of -200℃-370℃
No 1 Spring Temper + Aged: The finished products of this state at the working temperature of -200℃-

550℃,suitable for processing the circlip and wave spring.

The INCONELX-750 alloy steel has non magnetic, and the clamping ring and a wave spring will look

blue, brown or grey after heat treatment in the air.

Surface Treatment of Materials:

Dipping in Antirust Oil

Dipping-in antirust oil processing is used for carbon steel products for the purpose of corrosion and

rust prevention in the transport and storage process and the prevention effect depends on the storage


Blackening (Boiled Black)

Blackening, known as alkaline oxidation, is also the carbon steel product surface treatment method.

After the surface treatment, the formation of black oxide film on the surface of the product will be

completed with the effects of being rust-proof and good-looking, which will achieve a better effect

on corrosion prevention than the dip-in anti-rust oil.


Passivation is a surface treatment method for stainless steel materials. After the formation of a

passivation layer of compact oxide film on the surface of the stainless steel, the stainless steel

can improve its surface brightness and corrosion resistance.

Degreasing / Ultrasonic Cleaning

This is cleaning and surface treatment method for stainless steel. The processing method can

effectively remove the oil stain on the surface of materials and other organic things through

degreasing solvent. Ultrasonic Cleaning can strengthen the cleaning results.

Mechanical Deburring / Manual Deburring

The head and tail incision sites of wave spring and the retaining ring will inevitably carry sharp

corners and burrs. The mechanical rolling deburring or manual deburring can remove burrs or sharp

corners, and mechanical rolling deburring especially can get a bright surface additionally.

Shot Peening

Shot peening is generally used for wave spring. Shot with fine stainless steel pellet, the wave

spring surface will form a certain thickness of surface strengthening layer, and the tiny surface

defects will be cleared to reduce the stress concentration. Treated by shot peening, wave spring

fatigue life will be doubled.

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